Di Ensiklopedi MS Encarta dengan topik “Saudi Arabia” dan “Venezuela” dijelaskan bahwa kedua negara tersebut Menasionalisasi perusahaan minyak yang ada di sana. Pengambil-alihan perusahaan ARAMCO (Arabian American Oil Company) oleh pemerintah Saudi terbukti meningkatkan pendapatan negara sangat besar. Begitu pula Venezuela. Padahal SDM di kedua negara tersebut sangat terbatas. Arab Saudi bahkan kerap meminta tenaga kerja dan juga tenaga ahli ke Indonesia.
Nah kapan pemerintah Indonesia punya nyali untuk mandiri dan menasionalisasi perusahaan Migas yang ada di negara ini? Pendapatan Migas lebih dari RP 300 trilyun/tahun harusnya cukup untuk itu.
Berikut tulisan dari Ensiklopedi MS Encarta:
The latter development, along with Saudi Arabia’s 1974 takeover of controlling interest in the huge oil company Aramco, greatly increased government revenue, thus providing funds for another massive economic development plan.
The oil industry is the most important sector of the Saudi economy. Saudi Arabia’s proven petroleum reserves amount to one-fourth of the world total. The major oil fields are in the eastern part of the country and offshore in the Persian Gulf. Because the country has relatively small internal demand for oil, it exports most of its production. It is the largest exporter of petroleum in the world—in 2001 Saudi Arabia exported about 6.3 million barrels per day—and has the power to influence world oil prices.
Commercial quantities of oil were discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1938, but World War II (1939-1945) delayed large-scale exports until the 1950s. Initial exploration and drilling were carried out by the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco), the operating company of Standard Oil of California (Socal). Several other U.S. oil companies acquired shares in Aramco in 1948. The Saudi government bought a 25 percent share of the company in 1973, then took complete control in 1980, after which the company was called Saudi Aramco. Production rose steadily from about 1.3 million barrels per day in 1960 to 3.8 million barrels per day in 1970. The increased production coupled with rising oil prices, especially in 1973 and 1974, brought huge revenues to the Saudi government. Another rapid increase in revenues followed the Islamic Revolution of Iran (1978-1979), when Saudi Arabia increased production to compensate for the drop in Iranian production, and prices rose due to the uncertain market. Oil prices declined along with world demand for oil during the worldwide economic recession of the early 1980s. In 2002 Saudi Arabia produced 7.6 million barrels of oil per day.
Saudi Arabia began producing natural gas liquids in 1962. In 1982 the first phase of the so-called Master Gas System was put in place. This system was built to capture the natural gas that was released as a by-product of oil production and distribute it to power petrochemical plants, steel factories, and other manufacturing enterprises. By the late 1990s plans were put forward to exploit the kingdom’s other gas fields. In June 2001 Saudi Arabia awarded concessions for the projects to several foreign companies, marking the return of foreign companies for the first time since 1975. In 2002 Saudi Arabia produced 57 billion cu m (2 trillion cu ft) of natural gas.
The state-owned Saudi Arabian Mining Company controls Saudi Arabia’s significant nonpetrochemical mineral resources. These other mineral products include limestone, gypsum, marble, clay, and salt. In addition, smaller mining operations extract gold, silver, bauxite, copper, zinc, and iron ore
Petroleum, located in the Maracaibo Basin and in the eastern part of the country, dominates the Venezuelan economy. Crude and refined oil are the main source of government revenue and account for about one-third of the GDP. In 2002 Venezuela produced almost 1 billion barrels. Much of its oil is exported to the Netherlands Antilles for refining. Venezuela is a founding member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
The Venezuelan government nationalized the petroleum industry in 1976, although private investment and foreign participation has been permitted since 1992. In 2003 the country had petroleum reserves estimated at 78 billion barrels.