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USAID Buat Draft UU MIGAS 2000: Indonesia Dijajah AS?

Berikut adalah dokumen USAID (United States Agency for International Development, Lembaga Pemerintah AS) tentang “Penguatan Pengaturan Bidang Energi” di Indonesia yang menunjukkan campur tangan pemerintah AS mengenai sektor energi Indonesia.

Sekitar 90% migas Indonesia “dikelola” oleh perusahaan Multi National Companye (MNC) seperti Exxon Mobil, Chevron, Halliburtons, Unocal, yang mayoritas berasal dari AS. Dari “kerjasama tersebut” MNC dari AS mendapat keuntungan yang sangat besar melebihi dari kontrak bisnis yang wajar. Sebagai contoh jika ongkos pompa minyak (tidak termasuk pengilangan dan distribusi ke SPBU) yang wajar hanya sekitar US$ 4/barrel (Rp 231/liter), maka MNC mengeruk keuntungan hingga US$ 50/barrel atau lebih dari 12 kali lipat. Jika dikalikan dengan 365 juta barrel/tahun maka keuntungan lebih MNC tersebut adalah Rp 154,5 trilyun.

Sementara di dokumen CIA tentang Indonesia disebut bahwa sektor listrik di Indonesia masih “regulated”. Tarifnya masih “diatur” oleh pemerintah Indonesia, sehingga harganya terjangkau oleh mayoritas rakyat Indonesia yang masih menengah ke bawah. Hal ini jelas tidak menguntungkan bagi para “investor” AS yang ingin mengeruk keuntungan sebesar-besarnya. Untuk itu harus dideregulasi. “Subsidi” harus dicabut sehingga harganya mengikuti harga pasar atau yang sekarang disebut “Harga Keekonomian”.

Untuk itu pemerintah AS lewat USAID mengucurkan jutaan dollar yang dikucurkan kepada kaki tangan mereka agar kebijakan mereka bisa berjalan di Indonesia, yaitu deregulasi, pengurangan subsidi (penaikan harga), dan reformasi bidang energi. Untuk itu USAID jadi “Donatur Utama” agar usaha tersebut berhasil. Untuk tahun 2001 dan 2002 saja mereka menganggarkan masing-masing US$ 4 juta (Rp 37,2 milyar) agar berhasil.

Berikut cuplikan dari dokumen USAID yang berjudul “Energy Sector Governance Strengthened”:

By minimizing the role of government as a regulator, reducing subsidies, and promoting private sector involvement, a reformed energy sector can contribute billions of dollars in tax revenue. USAID has been the primary bilateral donor working on energy sector reform, which helps leverage larger multilateral loans.

USAID membantu pemerintah Indonesia agar Parlemen, Ormas/LSM, Media, dan Universitas “dilibatkan” sehingga “Penghapusan Subsidi” dan “Penentuan Harga” tidak menimbulkan “jeritan” masyarakat terlalu besar. Bahkan Kepala Bappenas, Paskah Suzetta, menyarankan subsidi dicabut secara bertahap setiap bulan sehingga tidak terlalu kelihatan (meski efeknya tetap terasa oleh warga). Bappenas menyarankan harga minyak dinaikkan sebesar 2% setiap bulan selama setahun (24%) sehingga sama dengan harga pasar. Meski mungkin para demonstran tidak mengetahui, tapi ini tetap akan memukul kantong para supir angkutan umum dan nelayan.

the Government of Indonesia, with USAID assistance, ensured that national and local parliaments, civil society organizations, media, and universities were involved in the decision. As a result, there was minimal public outcry. USAID also supported this process by providing policy analysis for energy pricing and subsidy removal.

USAID bekerjasama langsung dengan pejabat Indonesia yang berwenang merevisi draft UU tentang Listrik dan merancang struktur peraturan:

USAID advisors work directly with Government of Indonesia officials responsible for implementing power sector reform, revising draft electricity legislation and redesigning regulatory structures.

Hebat bukan? Betapa baiknya pemerintah AS “membantu” merevisi dan merancang UU energi dan listrik kita….

USAID “membantu” membuat RUU Minyak dan Gas yang dikirim ke DPR bulan Oktober 2000. Seorang ekonom menyatakan bahwa RUU tersebut dibuat oleh pemerintah AS. Komisi DPR tinggal memberi stempel dan tanda tangan saja:

USAID helped draft new oil and gas policy legislation submitted to Parliament in October 2000.

Di tahun 2001 USAID mengucurkan US$ 850.000 (Rp 7,8 Milyar) ke LSM-LSM dan Universitas-Universitas untuk kampanye masalah energi seperti “Penghapusan Subsidi Energi”:

In FY 2001, USAID plans to provide $850,000 DA to support NGOs and universities in developing programs for raising awareness and supporting involvement of local government and the public of energy sector issues, including removal of energy subsidies

Dengan kucuran dana sebesar itu tak heran jika ada oknum Lembaga Peneliti satu Universitas Negeri terkenal menyatakan jika harga BBM dinaikkan jumlah rakyat miskin akan turun….

USAID bekerjasama dengan ADB dan Bank Dunia dalam “mereformasi” bidang Energi Indonesia. Dengan hutang US$ 20 juta (hanya sekitar Rp 186 milyar), penasehat USAID berperan sebagai manajemen proyek dan perencanaan. ADB dan USAID bekerjasama membuat rancangan UU Migas Indonesia tahun 2000. Melengkapi usaha USAID, Bank Dunia melakukan “Studi Komprehensif” bidang Migas dan kebijakan tarif serta “bantuan” finansial dan restrukturisasi PLN.

Other Donor Programs: USAID works closely with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank on energy-sector reform. USAID assistance is leveraging a $20 million ADB power sector-restructuring loan, with USAID advisors playing project management and planning roles. The ADB and USAID worked together on drafting a new oil and gas law in 2000. Complementing USAID efforts, the World Bank has conducted comprehensive studies of the oil and gas sector, pricing policy, and provided assistance to the State electric company on financial and corporate restructuring

Yang harus kita sadari adalah bahwa setiap pinjaman dari IMF, Bank Dunia, ADB (yang merupakan alat AS dalam menguasai ekonomi dunia) mempunyai syarat bahwa negara peminjam harus melaksanakan Agenda Neoliberalisme seperti “Privatisasi”, Deregulasi, Pencabutan Subsidi/Kenaikan tarif (mis: pencabutan “Subsidi” BBM agar harga mengikuti harga pasar/harga keekonomian), perdagangan bebas, dan sebagainya (Tabb, William K. “Globalization.” Microsoft® Encarta® 2006). Dengan menaruh putra/putri Indonesia yang jadi mantan Direktur dari Bank Dunia dan IMF di kementrian bidang Ekonomi, Institusi Globalisasi tersebut dengan bebas dapat menjalankan program Neoliberalisme di Indonesia.

Penjualan BBM di Indonesia sekitar Rp 418 trilyun per tahun sementara listrik PLN sekitar Rp 200 trilyun per tahun. Total sekitar Rp 618 trilyun (belum termasuk batubara). Itu baru di harga bensin Rp 6.000/liter. Jika mengikuti harga “Pasar” atau “Keekonomian” yang sekitar Rp 10.000/liter nilainya naik jadi Rp 1.018 Trilyun!

Indonesia dengan jumlah penduduk nomor 4 terbesar di dunia jelas merupakan “pasar” yang menarik bagi AS. Setelah menguasai sekitar 90% di sektor hulu Migas, adakah dengan program Privatisasi dan Kenaikan Tarif, AS ingin menguasai sektor Hilir dan juga bidang Listrik? Adakah ini merupakan “Penjajahan Ekonomi” oleh AS terhadap Indonesia?

Belanda yang merupakan sekutu dekat AS bertindak tegas menangkap agen-agen CIA yang berusaha memata-matai Belanda, merekrut kaki tangan AS sehingga kebijakan Belanda tidak dapat dipengaruhi AS.

Bagaimana dengan Indonesia? Lembaga-lembaga AS (baik pemerintah mau pun swasta) dapat dengan bebas memberi dana kepada Individu, Lembaga Pemerintah (Polri, TNI, dsb), dan LSM-LSM Indonesia tanpa proses audit/kontrol dari masyarakat/negara. Adakah Mereka dan LSM-LSM ini akhirnya akan jadi agen asing yang bekerja untuk kepentingan asing ketimbang kepentingan rakyat Indonesia? Dengan proyek NAMRU-2, pejabat militer AS bebas keluar masuk Indonesia tanpa izin khusus.

Mudah-mudahan putra-putri Indonesia mampu melakukan yang terbaik untuk rakyat Indonesia. Bukan untuk kepentingan asing.

Berikut dokumen selengkapnya dari USAID:

http://www.usaid.gov/pubs/cbj2002/ane/id/497-013.html

Indonesia

ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: Indonesia
TITLE AND NUMBER: Energy Sector Governance Strengthened, 497-013
STATUS: Continuing
PLANNED FY 2001 OBLIGATIONS AND FUNDING SOURCE: $4,000,000 DA
PROPOSED FY 2002 OBLIGATIONS AND FUNDING SOURCE: $4,000,000 DA
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 2000 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2004

Summary: The energy sector is critical to the Indonesian economy, generating nearly 30% of total Government of Indonesia revenues and serving as a major source of foreign exchange. However, massive national energy subsidies ($4.5 billion annually, or half of all energy revenues) bleed the national budget and reduce funding for critical education, health and other social programs. Poorly conceived energy policies have resulted in inefficient production and distribution by state-owned monopolies and wasteful energy consumption. Reform efforts have accelerated since 1999, however, and the Government of Indonesia energy sector reform agenda has focused on improving efficiency and attracting private sector investment. The few vested interests benefiting from the current structure and the lack of transparency remain as obstacles to reform.

This strategic objective will strengthen energy sector governance to help create a more efficient and transparent energy sector. By minimizing the role of government as a regulator, reducing subsidies, and promoting private sector involvement, a reformed energy sector can contribute billions of dollars in tax revenue. A more efficient energy sector will also have positive environmental impact, rationalize pricing, increase access to energy services, and help sustain Indonesia’s natural resource base. USAID has been the primary bilateral donor working on energy sector reform, which helps leverage larger multilateral loans.

Key Results: At the strategic objective level, impact is demonstrated by increases in energy sector contributions to Government of Indonesia revenues and increases in emission units avoided (greenhouse gases, lead and other local pollutants). Achievement of this objective also relie45 on three key intermediate results: 1) energy sector reform implemented; 2) broader and more knowledgeable participation in energy sector reform; 3) environmentally friendly investments in the energy sector increased.

Performance and Prospects: USAID intends to obligate a total of $4 million in DA in FY 2001 to strengthen energy sector governance and help create a more efficient and transparent energy sector. USAID advisors play a catalytic role in helping the Government of Indonesia develop and implement key policy, legal and regulatory reforms. In 2000, the Government of Indonesia reduced energy subsidies by increasing electricity prices by 20% and fuel prices by 12%. Wary of public reaction to the price hikes because similar increases in 1998 led to street demonstrations, the Government of Indonesia, with USAID assistance, ensured that national and local parliaments, civil society organizations, media, and universities were involved in the decision. As a result, there was minimal public outcry. USAID also supported this process by providing policy analysis for energy pricing and subsidy removal. Additional increases are necessary and will require greater public understanding of the impact on the economy and on vulnerable groups. USAID will continue to provide technical analysis on the macroeconomic and microeconomic impact on industries and households, including a study on the impact of pricing policy on women and vulnerable populations.

USAID is helping restructure the electricity sector to open it to private competition, increase efficiency, and reduce the demand for scarce public funds in the sector. USAID advisors work directly with Government of Indonesia officials responsible for implementing power sector reform, revising draft electricity legislation and redesigning regulatory structures. USAID has provided much-needed assistance to the state electricity monopoly in improving power plant efficiency. The program has been replicated quickly within the monopoly as it prepares for sector restructuring.

In FY 2001, USAID plans to provide $2.85 million in DA to incrementally fund contractors under the Global Bureau Energy indefinite quantity contracts for energy analysis and policy assistance, and for assistance in restructuring the electricity, and oil and gas sectors.

USAID helped draft new oil and gas policy legislation submitted to Parliament in October 2000. The legislation will increase competition and efficiency by reducing the role of the state-owned oil company in exploration and production. A more efficient oil and gas sector will lower prices, increase product quality for consumers, increase government revenues, and improve air quality. USAID will continue to work on developing implementing regulations for the oil and gas legislation.

USAID, in partnership with an Indonesian NGO, has been instrumental in gaining the commitment of the state-owned oil company to phase out leaded gasoline in Jakarta by July 2001. USAID is assisting the Ministry of Energy’s Oil and Gas Directorate to develop and implement a long-range fuel standards plan that will provide the foundation for refinery upgrade decisions and the production of cleaner fuels.

In FY 2001, USAID plans to provide $850,000 DA to support NGOs and universities in developing programs for raising awareness and supporting involvement of local government and the public of energy sector issues, including removal of energy subsidies and phase out of leaded gasoline.

New decentralization laws have devolved the licensing of electricity businesses and management of non-oil and gas resources to local governments. USAID has helped establish a university network that can serve as a resource for local governments to address revenue sharing and regional pricing issues. The program will provide education on national policy issues and a forum for local governments to analyze and understand their own energy issues, provide input into national policy and develop their own local policy.

In FY 2001, USAID plans to provide $300,000 in DA to support U.S. Department of Energy/Albany Research Center to partly fund the expansion of the performance and efficiency improvement program and possibly to support Indonesian and international NGOs in developing renewable energy and energy efficiency investment activities.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: An increase or decrease in political will for energy sector reform may warrant adjustments to this objective. The appointment in 2000 of a private sector-oriented reformist as the new head of the State oil and gas company bodes well for reform agenda progress.

Other Donor Programs: USAID works closely with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank on energy-sector reform. USAID assistance is leveraging a $20 million ADB power sector-restructuring loan, with USAID advisors playing project management and planning roles. The ADB and USAID worked together on drafting a new oil and gas law in 2000. Complementing USAID efforts, the World Bank has conducted comprehensive studies of the oil and gas sector, pricing policy, and provided assistance to the State electric company on financial and corporate restructuring. Along with USAID, Canada and the ADB are helping Indonesia develop an action plan for leaded gas phase-out and reducing overall transportation emissions.

Principal Contractors, Grantees, or Agencies: The Energy Policy Analysis Office and Oil and Gas Policy programs are implemented by Advanced Engineering Associates International. The Institutional Strengthening for Electricity Sector Reform program is implemented by the Institute of International Education. The Power Plant Improvement program is implemented by Albany Research Labs, U.S. Department of Energy.


FY 2002 Performance Table

Indonesia: 497-013

Performance Measures:

Indicator

FY97 (Actual)

FY98 (Actual)

FY99 (Actual)

FY00 (Actual)

FY00 (Plan)

FY01 (Plan)

FY02 (Plan)

Indicator 1: Increase in net contribution to GOI from energy sector

NA

NA

0

500

200

800

1300

Indicator 2: Number of advances along the policy development and enabling regulations index

NA

NA

20

32

35

50

65

Indicator Information:

Indicator

Level (S) or (IR)

Unit of Measure

Source

Indicator Description

Indicator 1:

S

Hundreds of millions of US dollars

Government Report.(The State Budget (APBN), Bureau of Statistic Report)

The increase in dollars flowing to the GOI through subsidy reduction, taxes and fees and sale of government assets through privatization

Indicator 2:

IR

Policy index (100 points)

Knowledge of USAID staff and partners, interviews with the GOI counterparts and PLN staff and updates from other donors and partner NGOs.

Four categories of policy progress will be monitored: electricity reform, oil & gas reform, transportation reform and general policy/pricing reform

U.S. Financing

(In thousands of dollars)

Obligations

Expenditures

Unliquidated

Through September 30, 1999

0

DA

0

DA

0

DA

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

DFA

0

DFA

0

DFA

Fiscal Year 2000

1,000

DA

0

DA

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

DFA

0

DFA

Through September 30, 2000

1,000

DA

0

DA

1,000

DA

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

DFA

0

DFA

0

DFA

Prior Year Unobligated Funds

0

DA

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

DFA

Planned Fiscal Year 2001 NOA

4,000

DA

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

DFA

Total Planned Fiscal Year 2001

4,000

DA

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

DFA

Future Obligations

Est. Total Cost

Proposed Fiscal Year 2002 NOA

4,000

DA

9,950

DA

18,950

DA

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3 Tanggapan

  1. I found your site on technorati and read a few of your other posts. Keep up the good work. I just added your RSS feed to my Google News Reader. Looking forward to reading more from you down the road!

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  3. Well I am glad if my posts show up in Technorati also. In Indonesia WordPress sometimes this blog is number one…:)

    Anyway, I have written presentation about Energy Power Alternatives and also Energy Saving in Indonesia. I will translate it into English in the future.

    Good luck to you too Josh. May I quote or give link to your URL?

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