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Amerikanisasi BBM

Revrisond Baswir

Indonesia tampaknya benar-benar sedang menjadi sasaran empuk campur tangan Amerika. Ibarat adonan roti, melalui beberapa lembaga keuangan dan pendanaan internasional yang secara langsung dan tidak langsung berada di bawah kekuasaannya, Indonesia kini seperti sedang diremas-remas oleh Amerika untuk dibentuk menjadi donat atau roti keju.

Simak misalnya keributan di seputar kenaikan harga BBM yang terjadi belakangan. Jika ditelusuri ke belakang, boleh dikatakan hampir pada semua aspek perumusan kebijakan pemerintah dalam menaikkan harga BBM ini, sarat dengan campur tangan Amerika.

Memang benar, kenaikan harga BBM bukan hal baru bagi Indonesia. Tetapi bila disimak motivasinya, kenaikan harga BBM yang terjadi belakangan, motivasinya jelas sangat berbeda dari motivasi kenaikan harga BBM yang terjadi pada masa sebelumnya.

Sebab itu, para pejabat pemerintah boleh saja mengemukakan 1001 alasan mengenai penyebab ‘terpaksa’ dinaikkannya harga BBM. Tetapi sesuai dengan UU Migas No. 22/2001, kenaikan harga BBM yang terjadi belakangan mustahil dapat dipisahkan dari tengah berlangsungnya apa yang disebut sebagai liberalisasi industri migas di negeri ini.

Artinya, berbeda dengan kenaikan harga BBM sebelum 2001, kenaikkan harga BBM yang terjadi belakang secara tegas digerakkan oleh motivasi untuk menghapuskan subsidi BBM dan melepaskan harga BBM sesuai dengan harga pasar internasional.

Pertanyaannya, mengapa industri migas harus diliberalisasikan, dan mengapa pula harga BBM harus disesuaikan dengan harga pasar internasional?

Jawabannya sangat sederhana. Sebagaimana dikemukakan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) Purnomo Yusgiantoro, tujuannya antara lain adalah untuk merangsang masuknya investasi asing ke sektor hilir industri migas di sini.

Sebagaimana dikatakannya, “Liberalisasi sektor hilir migas membuka kesempatan bagi pemain asing untuk berpartisipasi dalam bisnis eceran migas….. Namun, liberalisasi ini berdampak mendongkrak harga BBM yang disubsidi pemerintah. Sebab kalau harga BBM masih rendah karena disubsidi, pemain asing enggan masuk,” (Kompas, 14 Mei 2003).

Karena diniatkan untuk mengundang masuknya investor asing, tidak aneh bila hampir semua aspek perumusan kebijakan pemerintah dalam melakukan liberalisasi industri migas dan menaikkan harga BBM, sarat dengan campur tangan asing, khususnya Amerika.

Simak, misalnya, pernyataan USAID (United States Agency for International Development), mengenai kegiatannya dalam reformasi sektor energi di Indonesia,USAID has been the primary bilateral donor working on energy sector reform.…” Khusus mengenai penyusunan UU Migas, USAID secara terbuka menyatakan, “The ADB and USAID worked together on drafting a new oil and gas law in 2000,” (http://www.usaid.gov/pubs/cbj2002/ane/id/497-013.html).

Berdasarkan kedua kutipan tersebut, dapat disaksikan betapa telah sangat jauhnya pihak asing, khsusunya Amerika, terlibat dalam penyusunan kebijakan industri migas di Indonesia. Selain itu, dapat disaksikan pula betapa telah sangat berkembangnya tradisi untuk menyerahkan penyusunan rancangan undang-undang (RUU) kepada pihak asing di negeri ini.

Sebagaimana diketahui, keterlibatan asing dalam penyusunan RUU tidak hanya dialami oleh UU Migas. Tetapi dialami pula oleh UU Kelistrikan, UU Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) dan beberapa produk perundang-undangan lainnya. RUU Kelistrikan disusunkan oleh Bank Dunia, sedangkan RUU BUMN disusunkan oleh Price Waterhouse Coopers.

Selanjutnya, khusus mengenai kenaikan harga BBM, simaklah pernyataan USAID mengenai keterlibatan Bank Dunia berikut, “Complementing USAID efforts, the World Bank has conducted comprehensive studies of the oil and gas sector, pricing policy, and provided assistance to the State electric company on financial and corporate restructuring.”

Dengan latar belakang seperti itu, mudah dimengerti bila dalam iklan layanan masyarakat yang diterbitkan pemerintah dalam rangka sosialisasi penghapusan subsidi BBM, ditemukan sebuah grafik yang berjudul “Kelompok terkaya menikmati subsidi BBM terbesar,” yang datanya ternyata berasal dari hasil studi Bank Dunia.

Bagaimana halnya dengan kajian dampak ekonomi kenaikan harga BBM? Sebagaimana terungkap dalam sebuah laporan yang berjudul “Kajian Dampak Ekonomi Kenaikan Harga BBM,” yang diterbitkan oleh Pusat Studi Energi, Departemen ESDM pada Desember 2001, kajian tersebut ternyata dibiayai oleh AUSAID (Australia Agency for International Development), melalui International Trade Strategies (ITS) Pte. Ltd., Australia.

Sesuai dengan informasi yang tersaji dalam kajian tersebut, kecuali harga premium yang pada 2001 dipandang sudah sesuai dengan harga pasar, pemerintah ternyata telah mengembangkan tiga skenario mengenai pelepasan harga BBM ke pasar.

Skenario pertama, semua harga BBM dilepaskan ke pasar pada 2004. Skenario kedua, harga diesel dan minyak bakar dilepas ke pasar pada 2004, sedangkan harga minyak tanah dan solar pada 2007. Skenario ketiga, harga diesel dan minyak bakar dilepaskan ke pasar pada 2004, solar pada 2007, dan minyak tanah pada 2010.

Jika ditanyakan mengenai siapa yang tengah harap-harap cemas menanti tuntasnya pelepasan harga BBM ke pasar itu, selain beberapa perusahaan migas domestik, sekali lagi di sini kita akan bertemu dengan beberapa perusahaan migas asing, termasuk dari Amerika.

Sebagaimana dikemukakan Direktur Jenderal Migas Departemen ESDM, Iin Arifin Takhyan, saat ini terdapat 105 perusahaan yang sudah mendapat izin untuk bermain di sektor hilir migas, termasuk membuka stasiun pengisian BBM untuk umum (SPBU) (Trust, edisi 11/2004). Di antaranya adalah perusahaan migas raksasa seperti British Petrolium (Amerika-Inggris), Shell (Belanda), Petro China (RRC), Petronas (Malaysia), dan Chevron-Texaco (Amerika).

Pertanyaannya, apakah para anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) yang ada sekarang ini akan membiarkan saja berlangsungnya proses Amerikanisasi BBM tersebut? Jawabannya, wallahu a’lam.

http://www.usaid.gov/pubs/cbj2002/ane/id/497-013.html
Indonesia

ACTIVITY DATA SHEET

PROGRAM: Indonesia
TITLE AND NUMBER: Energy Sector Governance Strengthened, 497-013
STATUS: Continuing
PLANNED FY 2001 OBLIGATIONS AND FUNDING SOURCE: $4,000,000 DA
PROPOSED FY 2002 OBLIGATIONS AND FUNDING SOURCE: $4,000,000 DA
INITIAL OBLIGATION: FY 2000 ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE: FY 2004

Summary: The energy sector is critical to the Indonesian economy, generating nearly 30% of total Government of Indonesia revenues and serving as a major source of foreign exchange. However, massive national energy subsidies ($4.5 billion annually, or half of all energy revenues) bleed the national budget and reduce funding for critical education, health and other social programs. Poorly conceived energy policies have resulted in inefficient production and distribution by state-owned monopolies and wasteful energy consumption. Reform efforts have accelerated since 1999, however, and the Government of Indonesia energy sector reform agenda has focused on improving efficiency and attracting private sector investment. The few vested interests benefiting from the current structure and the lack of transparency remain as obstacles to reform.

This strategic objective will strengthen energy sector governance to help create a more efficient and transparent energy sector. By minimizing the role of government as a regulator, reducing subsidies, and promoting private sector involvement, a reformed energy sector can contribute billions of dollars in tax revenue. A more efficient energy sector will also have positive environmental impact, rationalize pricing, increase access to energy services, and help sustain Indonesia’s natural resource base. USAID has been the primary bilateral donor working on energy sector reform, which helps leverage larger multilateral loans.

Key Results: At the strategic objective level, impact is demonstrated by increases in energy sector contributions to Government of Indonesia revenues and increases in emission units avoided (greenhouse gases, lead and other local pollutants). Achievement of this objective also relies on three key intermediate results: 1) energy sector reform implemented; 2) broader and more knowledgeable participation in energy sector reform; 3) environmentally friendly investments in the energy sector increased.

Performance and Prospects: USAID intends to obligate a total of $4 million in DA in FY 2001 to strengthen energy sector governance and help create a more efficient and transparent energy sector. USAID advisors play a catalytic role in helping the Government of Indonesia develop and implement key policy, legal and regulatory reforms. In 2000, the Government of Indonesia reduced energy subsidies by increasing electricity prices by 20% and fuel prices by 12%. Wary of public reaction to the price hikes because similar increases in 1998 led to street demonstrations, the Government of Indonesia, with USAID assistance, ensured that national and local parliaments, civil society organizations, media, and universities were involved in the decision. As a result, there was minimal public outcry. USAID also supported this process by providing policy analysis for energy pricing and subsidy removal. Additional increases are necessary and will require greater public understanding of the impact on the economy and on vulnerable groups. USAID will continue to provide technical analysis on the macroeconomic and microeconomic impact on industries and households, including a study on the impact of pricing policy on women and vulnerable populations.

USAID is helping restructure the electricity sector to open it to private competition, increase efficiency, and reduce the demand for scarce public funds in the sector. USAID advisors work directly with Government of Indonesia officials responsible for implementing power sector reform, revising draft electricity legislation and redesigning regulatory structures. USAID has provided much-needed assistance to the state electricity monopoly in improving power plant efficiency. The program has been replicated quickly within the monopoly as it prepares for sector restructuring.

In FY 2001, USAID plans to provide $2.85 million in DA to incrementally fund contractors under the Global Bureau Energy indefinite quantity contracts for energy analysis and policy assistance, and for assistance in restructuring the electricity, and oil and gas sectors.

USAID helped draft new oil and gas policy legislation submitted to Parliament in October 2000. The legislation will increase competition and efficiency by reducing the role of the state-owned oil company in exploration and production. A more efficient oil and gas sector will lower prices, increase product quality for consumers, increase government revenues, and improve air quality. USAID will continue to work on developing implementing regulations for the oil and gas legislation.

USAID, in partnership with an Indonesian NGO, has been instrumental in gaining the commitment of the state-owned oil company to phase out leaded gasoline in Jakarta by July 2001. USAID is assisting the Ministry of Energy’s Oil and Gas Directorate to develop and implement a long-range fuel standards plan that will provide the foundation for refinery upgrade decisions and the production of cleaner fuels.

In FY 2001, USAID plans to provide $850,000 DA to support NGOs and universities in developing programs for raising awareness and supporting involvement of local government and the public of energy sector issues, including removal of energy subsidies and phase out of leaded gasoline.

New decentralization laws have devolved the licensing of electricity businesses and management of non-oil and gas resources to local governments. USAID has helped establish a university network that can serve as a resource for local governments to address revenue sharing and regional pricing issues. The program will provide education on national policy issues and a forum for local governments to analyze and understand their own energy issues, provide input into national policy and develop their own local policy.

In FY 2001, USAID plans to provide $300,000 in DA to support U.S. Department of Energy/Albany Research Center to partly fund the expansion of the performance and efficiency improvement program and possibly to support Indonesian and international NGOs in developing renewable energy and energy efficiency investment activities.

Possible Adjustments to Plans: An increase or decrease in political will for energy sector reform may warrant adjustments to this objective. The appointment in 2000 of a private sector-oriented reformist as the new head of the State oil and gas company bodes well for reform agenda progress.

Other Donor Programs: USAID works closely with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank on energy-sector reform. USAID assistance is leveraging a $20 million ADB power sector-restructuring loan, with USAID advisors playing project management and planning roles. The ADB and USAID worked together on drafting a new oil and gas law in 2000. Complementing USAID efforts, the World Bank has conducted comprehensive studies of the oil and gas sector, pricing policy, and provided assistance to the State electric company on financial and corporate restructuring. Along with USAID, Canada and the ADB are helping Indonesia develop an action plan for leaded gas phase-out and reducing overall transportation emissions.

Principal Contractors, Grantees, or Agencies: The Energy Policy Analysis Office and Oil and Gas Policy programs are implemented by Advanced Engineering Associates International. The Institutional Strengthening for Electricity Sector Reform program is implemented by the Institute of International Education. The Power Plant Improvement program is implemented by Albany Research Labs, U.S. Department of Energy.


FY 2002 Performance Table

Indonesia: 497-013

Performance Measures:

Indicator

FY97 (Actual)

FY98 (Actual)

FY99 (Actual)

FY00 (Actual)

FY00 (Plan)

FY01 (Plan)

FY02 (Plan)

Indicator 1: Increase in net contribution to GOI from energy sector

NA

NA

0

500

200

800

1300

Indicator 2: Number of advances along the policy development and enabling regulations index

NA

NA

20

32

35

50

65

Indicator Information:

Indicator

Level (S) or (IR)

Unit of Measure

Source

Indicator Description

Indicator 1:

S

Hundreds of millions of US dollars

Government Report.(The State Budget (APBN), Bureau of Statistic Report)

The increase in dollars flowing to the GOI through subsidy reduction, taxes and fees and sale of government assets through privatization

Indicator 2:

IR

Policy index (100 points)

Knowledge of USAID staff and partners, interviews with the GOI counterparts and PLN staff and updates from other donors and partner NGOs.

Four categories of policy progress will be monitored: electricity reform, oil & gas reform, transportation reform and general policy/pricing reform

U.S. Financing

(In thousands of dollars)

Obligations

Expenditures

Unliquidated

Through September 30, 1999

0

DA

0

DA

0

DA

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

DFA

0

DFA

0

DFA

Fiscal Year 2000

1,000

DA

0

DA

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

DFA

0

DFA

Through September 30, 2000

1,000

DA

0

DA

1,000

DA

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

FSA

0

DFA

0

DFA

0

DFA

Prior Year Unobligated Funds

0

DA

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

DFA

Planned Fiscal Year 2001 NOA

4,000

DA

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

DFA

Total Planned Fiscal Year 2001

4,000

DA

0

CSD

0

ESF

0

SEED

0

FSA

0

DFA

Future Obligations

Est. Total Cost

Proposed Fiscal Year 2002 NOA

4,000

DA

9,950

DA

18,950

DA

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Satu Tanggapan

  1. Indonesia yang kaya dengan Sumber Daya Alam (SDA)
    yang jadi pertanyaan : banyak orang indonesia SDM nya pintar-pintar dan pintar mengakali juga. nego kontrak ………….. (bukan rahasia lagi)

    bila perbandingan sudah mencapai 59 : 41
    tambahan berapa lagi yang harus dibantu lewat subsidi

    http://mediaindonesia.com/index.php?ar_id=MTIwODI=

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