Ada sebagian Neolib yang berdalih “Singapura, Jepang, dan Korea bisa kaya meski mereka tak punya Sumber Daya Alam (SDA)!” Ini untuk mengalihkan perhatian kita sehingga para MNC (Kompeni Gaya Baru) -terutama dari AS – bebas menguras Migas dan Kekayaan Alam lainnya di Indonesia. Sebagai contoh, untuk hasil tambang Emas dan Perak di Papua, Freeport hanya memberi royalti untuk Indonesia sebanyak 1%. Sedang Freeport dapat 99%! Bagaimana Indonesia bisa kaya?
Tapi setelah saya selidiki, ternyata Singapura meski tidak punya ladang Migas, namun mereka mengelola ladang migas di berbagai negara seperti Indonesia, Cina, Kamboja, bahkan Australia. Silahkan lihat:
Di Indonesia mereka punya 3 kontrak Production Sharing Contract (PSC) yaitu Kakap PSC, Mahakam Hilir PSC, dan Sampang PSC! Silahkan lihat:
Bahkan Korsel meski gasnya cuma sedikit (1,5% dari kebutuhan mereka), SDA itu mereka kelola sendiri. Bahkan KNOC (Korea National Oil Company) membeli ladang migas Kanada dari Hunt senilai $521 Million! Korea juga mengelola minyak dan gas lewat BUMN mereka. Jadi kekayaan alam itu tidak jatuh ke segelintir pengusaha saja, tapi ke seluruh rakyat mereka. Lihat Kogas yang mengelola 17 blok di 11 negara:
Jepang bahkan pemerintahnya mendukung perusahaan-perusahaan Migas Jepang untuk mengeksplorasi Migas di seluruh dunia seperti Timur Tengah dan Indonesia. Pemerintah Jepang berkomitmen untuk mengimpor 40% migas dari blok Migas yang dikelola perusahaan Jepang.
Jika Singapura, Jepang, dan Korsel yang nyaris tidak punya SDA seperti Migas saja begitu rajin mengelola Migas bahkan hingga ke seluruh dunia, bagaimana dengan Indonesia yang kaya Migas?
Jadi keliru bagi bangsa Indonesia jika menyerahkan ladang Migasnya dan juga SDA lainnya ke asing. Itu sama saja dengan menyia-nyiakan kekayaan alam kita.
Korea National to Buy Canadian Oil, Gas Fields From Hunt for $521 Million
By Shinhye Kang – Dec 15, 2010 11:59 AM GMT+0700
Korea National Oil Corp. agreed to buy Canadian oil and gas assets from Dallas-based Hunt Oil Co. for C$525 million ($521 million) in the state-owned company’s second overseas acquisition this year. Photographer: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg
Korea National Oil Corp. agreed to buy Canadian oil and gas assets from Dallas-based Hunt Oil Co. for C$525 million ($521 million) in the state-owned company’s second overseas acquisition this year.
Harvest Operations Corp., acquired by Korea National in October 2009, will purchase areas that produced about 11,720 barrels of oil equivalent a day in the third quarter, Harvest said in a statement yesterday. The fields hold 52.9 million barrels of proven and probable reserves.
The deal comes as Korea National completes its hostile 1.87 billion pounds ($2.95 billion) takeover of Scotland’s Dana Petroleum Plc. and is the latest in a series of South Korean investments in Canadian oil and gas. Chief Executive Officer Kang Young Won said Dec. 2 that after buying Dana the company will focus on acquiring oil blocks rather than companies.
“Korea National is switching to acquiring fields, which is cheaper than buying stakes in companies at a premium,” Cho Seung Yeon, a Seoul-based analyst at HMC Investment Securities Co., said by telephone today. “It has gained experience and skills in developing fields after recent acquisitions.”
The South Korean company probably paid Hunt $9.80 per barrel of oil equivalent, compared with $12 a barrel for Dana, Cho said.
Korea National, based south of Seoul in Gyeonggi, bought a 50 percent stake in Petro-Tech Peruana SA of Peru for $450 million in February last year and paid $3.9 billion for Calgary- based Harvest eight months later.
STX Energy Co., a South Korean fuel supplier and explorer, bought a natural gas field in August for C$152 million from EnCana Corp., Canada’s biggest natural gas producer. State-run Korea Gas Corp. bought 50 percent stakes in three Canadian gas fields in February.
To contact the reporter on this story: Shinhye Kang in Seoul at firstname.lastname@example.org.
To contact the editor responsible for this story: Amit Prakash at email@example.com://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-12-15/korea-national-to-buy-canadian-oil-gas-fields-from-hunt-for-521-million.html
Exploration and Production
South Korea produced about 18 Bcf of natural gas (about 1.5 percent of consumption) in 2009 from the only domestic gas field in production, Donghae-1 in the Ulleung Basin. The Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) will continue production operations until about 2018, when the project will be converted into an offshore storage facility.
As part of the effort to develop into a global integrated energy company, KOGAS is participating in overseas E&P projects in 17 blocks in over 11 countries. South Korea has a minority equity share in three production-stage projects, namely 3.0 percent in Qatar’s RasGas project, 8.9 percent in Yemen’s YLNG project, and 1.2 percent inOman’s Oman LNG project. It is KOGAS’ mid-term goal to secure 25 percent of imports from equity production sources by 2017.
Domestic Production and Exploration
In 2009, Japan’s total oil production was roughly 132,660 bbl/d, of which only 5,330 bbl/d was crude oil. The vast majority of Japan’s oil production comes in the form of refinery gain, resulting from the country’s large petroleum refining sector. Japan has 145 producing oil wells in 13 fields, according to The Oil and Gas Journal. The pace of the domestic exploration program slowed in 2009-2010, reportedly due to the low rate of production compared with exploration costs.
Overseas Exploration and Production
Because of the country’s lack of domestic oil resources, Japanese oil companies have sought participation in exploration and production projects overseas with government backing. The government’s 2006 energy strategy plan encourages Japanese companies to increase energy exploration and development projects around the world to secure a stable supply of oil and natural gas. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation supports upstream companies by offering loans at favorable rates, thereby allowing Japanese companies to bid effectively for projects in key producing countries. Such financial support helps Japanese companies to purchase stakes in oil and gas fields around the world, reinforcing national supply security while guaranteeing their own financial stability. The government’s goal is to import 40 percent of the country’s total crude oil imports from Japanese-owned concessions by 2030, up from the current estimated 19 percent.
Japan’s overseas oil projects are primarily located in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Japanese oil companies involved in exploration and production projects overseas include: Inpex, Cosmo Oil, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Japan Energy Development Corporation, Japex, Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Nippon Oil, and others. Many of these companies are involved in small-scale projects that were originally set up by JNOC. However, many are involved in high-profile upstream projects involving major investments in overseas ventures in recent years.
Some of the major upstream projects that Japanese companies are involved in overseas are:
Middle East and Africa
·Kuwait and Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone: Khafji and Hout fields – Japanese-owned Arabian Oil Company (AOC) once held a 40% stake in exploration for the Khafji and Hout oil fields in Kuwait and the Neutral Zone. Subsequent concession expirations have left the AOC with a limited, technical role and a 100,000 bbl/d purchase contract from Khafji field until 2023.
·United Arab Emirates (UAE): Adma Block – Japan Oil Development Co. (JODCO), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Inpex, holds a 12% stake in 4 of the fields and a 40% stake in a fifth field. JODCO is involved in developing the fields, which began producing in 1982. Development is continuing to maintain and expand output. Additionally, offshore UAE and Qatar, Mubarraz and 2 other fields are 100% staked by the consortium of Nippon Oil, Cosmo Oil, Tokyo Electric, Chubu Electric, and Kansai Electric. Crude oil produced is exported under the name Mubarraz Blend.
·Egypt: West Bakr Block – A joint venture between Inpex and Mitsui with 100% interest in exploration and development, oil production began in 1980; the contract extends to 2020.
·Algeria: El Ouar 1 and 2 Blocks – Inpex holds a 10% working interest in these onshore fields containing oil, gas, and condensates. Development is continuing in conjunction with Sonatrach.
·Congo: 11 offshore oil fields – Inpex holds a 32% stake. Production began in 1975; the contract was extended to 2023. Production remains stable due to ongoing development.
·Norway: North Sea offshore – Idemitsu Kosan currently produces 28,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d) from its interests in 5 producing fields in Norway’s North Sea (Snorre, Tordis/Vigdis, Statfjord East, Sygna, Fram), and was awarded 2 exploration licenses in September 2009 in a joint venture with Osaka Gas for 2 additional blocks near currently producing Snorre and Fram fields, in which Idemitsu Kosan also holds shares.
·U.K.: North Sea offshore – Idemitsu Kosan acquired Petro Summit Investment UK from Sumitomo Corp. in November 2009, and is producing 5,000 boe/d from 9 fields. It is also involved in exploration and development of 4 licensed blocks west of the Shetland Islands, having discovering crude and gas in mid-2009. Additionally, Nippon Oil has stakes from 2% to 45% in the North Sea offshore Magnus, Brae, Andrew, Blane, and other fields. Its net production is currently 12,600 boe/d.
·Azerbaijan: Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli Project (ACG) – Inpex has a 10% stake in ACG, which is now producing an estimated 1 MMbbl/d.
·Kazakhstan: North Caspian Sea project, Kashagan oil field – Inpex has a 7.56% stake. Initial production is projected at 450,000 bbl/d at end-2014. Peak production target is 1.5 MMbbl/d by the end of the decade.
·Sakhalin-1 – The Sakhalin Oil and Gas development Company (SODECO), a consortium of public and private Japanese oil companies, holds a 30% interest. Sakhalin-1 oil production reached 250,000 in February 2009.
·Sakhalin-II – Mitsui and Mitsubishi have a combined interest of 22.5% in the oil field; estimated reserves are 1 billion barrels.
·Indonesia: Offshore Mahakam Block and Attaka unit – Inpex has a 50% stake in each project and production-sharing contracts lasting to 2017 with the Indonesian government. Crude and condensate are shipped mainly to oil refineries and power utilities in Japan. Negotiations are underway to extend the contracts. Additionally, Nippon Oil and JOGMEC in joint venture own a 17% stake, currently under exploration and development, in the Berau Block integrated area.
·Australia: Van Gogh and Ravensworth oil fields – Inpex has a 47.5% interest in Van Gogh, which started up in first quarter 2010 with a 150,000 bbl/d capacity, and a 28.5% interest in neighboring Ravensworth, which started up in September 2010 as part of the 96,000 bbl/d Pyrenees project. Additionally, Nippon Oil has a 25% stake in the NW Shelf Mutineer and Exeter fields. Its net production is currently 1,500 Boe/d, and it also has 5 other fields in various stages of development.
·Vietnam: Nam Rong/Doi Moi offshore oil fields – Idemitsu Kosan has a 15% stake in these fields, which began production February 2010 at 20,000 bbl/d; Idemitsu’s portion is 1,500 bbl/d. Idemitsu, together with Nippon Oil and Teikoku Oil, holds interests in 2 other offshore fields currently under exploration.
·Papua New Guinea: onshore blocks at Kutubu and Moran – a consortium of Nippon Oil, Mitsubishi, and the Japanese government own interests in various fields under exploration, development, production.
·Brazil: Frade block, Northern Campos Basin – a joint venture of Inpex, JOGMEC, and Sojitz Corp hold 18.3% interest in this offshore block. Production began in 2009; peak production of 90,000 bbl/d is projected for 2011.
·Canada: Alberta oil sands syncrude project – Nippon Oil has a 5% stake. Production capacity was 350,000 bbl/d in 2006. Nippon’s share was 14,000 bbl/d in 2009.
·Canada: Athabasca oil sands project, Alberta – Japex is involved in this project, its share in 2007 production was 7,000 bbl/d.
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